Achieving period-correct graphics in personal computer emulators — Part 1: The Amiga

Table of contents


In this article series we’re going to be looking at emulating the Commodore Amiga, Commodore 64, and MS-DOS/early Windows era IBM PC compatibles with period-correct graphics. What do I mean by “period-correctness”? It’s quite simple — the emulated graphics should look as close as possible to the output of CRT displays used with these computers back in the 80s and 90s. Now, there’s quite a bit of variance on the most typically used CRT technology per platform, and these differences matter a lot, as it will demonstrated. The below dream retro-setup showcases the perfect pairings for the aforementioned computers (no, it’s not mine, unfortunately):

Dream retro-computing setup
Left: a Commodore 64 paired with a small 13" colour TV. Middle: an Amiga 500 hooked up to the venerable C= 1084 monitor (it’s not period-correct if the front panel door is not broken off!). Right: an IBM PC compatible with a nice 15" Trinitron display. This Norwegian dude (UncleAwesome) certainly knows how to have a good time! (source)

Of course, a small percentage of users who used their computers professionally may have enjoyed bigger and higher quality displays even back then, but here we’re mainly focused on the experience of the typical home computer enthusiast playing games (and watching a few demos now and then).

In case you’re wondering, my “credentials” are having owned these wonderful systems throughout the late 80s and 90s and caring deeply about them. I used to spend far too many hours doing pixel graphics in Deluxe Paint on my trusty Amiga 500, got my feet wet with 3D through Imagine, and produced countless modules (songs) in ProTracker and FastTracker II, so maybe I’m a bit more attuned to the accurate emulation of the audiovisual idiosyncrasies of these classic machines than the average user (or maybe not — many people who “just play games” can be very sensitive to these aspects as well). I’ve also done a fair bit of VGA programming in assembly on my first 486 PC, so I’m not a complete stranger to the low-level details of graphics programming either.

In any case, this is not about prescribing the “best” way of emulating these computers to anybody. “Best” is highly subjective, you can do whatever, for all I care, and it’s not that some friendly agents from the Bureau of Historically Accurate Retro-Computing will show up at your doorstep either if you’re not following this guide to the letter… However, if you’re after experiencing these systems just like people did back in the day (to the extent current emulation technology allows it) — whether as a die-hard fan of these iconic machines, or as a newcomer who is interested in learning more about the glory-days of home computing — I would like to think you’re in the right place. In any case, I do hope you’ll find this series a worthwhile and interesting read.

Finally, while I’ve been trying to do my best at presenting technically and historically accurate information in my writings, the more I researched the topic, the more I realised how much depth and subtlety there is to it. I’m sure that I had made a few mistakes here and there, and as there is far too much misinformation circulating about emulating these systems on the Internet already, if you’ve spotted any mistakes, factual or otherwise, I’d appreciate if you’d let me know in the comments so I can make the necessary corrections.

But enough of this lengthy introduction, let’s get to the best personal computer of all human history — the mighty Commodore Amiga!

The Amiga

In the Amiga’s heyday from the mid-80s to early 90s, pretty much everybody who could afford it used their beloved machine with the iconic Commodore 1084S monitor or a Philips CM 8833 (most 1084 models were manufactured by Philips and thus used the same picture tube; they’re essentially identical monitors). Sure, there were other Commodore models, the 1084 itself had dozens of variations over the years and so had the Philips, but they all shared the same basic characteristics:

  • 14" picture tube with a 13" diagonal viewable area
  • slotted-triplet shadow mask (also known as slot mask, or in-line shadow mask)
  • 0.42 mm dot pitch
  • 15,626 Hz line frequency
  • 50/60 Hz image frequency
  • 600-line vertical resolution
  • composite and analog RGB inputs

Practically, they were really high-quality (for the time) and affordable small TVs with analog RGB inputs. As pairing the computer with one of these monitors is arguably the most authentic classic Amiga experience1, we’ll be looking at emulating this particular display in WinUAE, the premier Amiga emulator.

Amiga Demo by Jim Sachs
“Amiga Demo” by the legendary Jim Sachs displayed in WinUAE with C= 1084S CRT emulation in correct NTSC aspect ratio.
(Click on the image for an enlarged version to appreciate the details)

Single vs double-scan

A significant number of people really dislike the idea of using any kind of CRT emulation shader and prefer the look of sharp pixels. Well, I used to be one of them so I know, and if we’re talking about emulating 320×200 to 640×480 (S)VGA games, I would still 100% agree — even the cheapest VGA monitors used to be tack sharp, and they exhibited none of the various effects typically associated with CRT shaders (prominent scanlines, halation, bloom, etc.)

Moreover, 320×200 VGA was double-scanned at a line frequency of 31 kHz (you can clearly see that on the blown up image below) so you could not notice scanlines even on 15" or 17" displays from a normal viewing distance, neither the effects of the shadow mask because of the very fine, typically 0.25-0.28 mm dot pitch. In any case, even 4k display wouldn’t be able to convincingly emulate the extremely subtle CRT effects of VGA monitors, so unless you have a 8k monitor, it’s best to stick to sharp bilinear or integer scaling for DOS and early Windows games. (And I would go even as far as saying that these characteristics of PC monitors are not even worth emulating.)

Wing Commander, 320x200 VGA
Real photo of a CRT monitor running Wing Commander at 320×200 VGA resolution. Virtually all non-broken VGA monitors produced an image this sharp and artefact free.
Wing Commander, 320x200 VGA, close-up
Blown up view of the same 320×200 VGA screen — notice that the image is double-scanned; in reality, all VGA adapters actually output 320×400, so every line was doubled!

The situation on the Amiga, however, is entirely different. As mentioned, Commodore monitors were essentially small TVs, subject to SD TV standards. PAL (NTSC) programmes display 50 (60) half-frames (fields) per second, interlaced, at 576 (480) lines of vertical resolution. What this means is that the display alternates between even and odd fields at 50 (60) Hz, and every field only contains 288 (240) lines, stretched to fill the screen (there is literally a 1-line vertical offset between the two alternating fields; this is the cause of the infamous “interlace flicker”). Interlace is not that great with mostly static computer generated images having sharp contours, so for low-res they used the same trick as most consoles of the era: they simply just sent the display either all-even or all-odd fields, rather than alternating between even and odd. The result is a completely static 50 (60) FPS image — but the scanlines now only have half the “density” vertically, so to speak, which is the main contributing factor for the famous “scanline” look. Scanlines are much more noticeable on NTSC because of its ~17% reduced vertical resolution compared to PAL, which causes the lines making up the image to be placed further apart (incidentally, this explains why scanline-fetishism seems to be more rampant in American retro-gaming circles nowadays…)

The below photos of Commodore monitors displaying 320×200 low-res in NTSC illustrate single-scanning very well (enlarge them to inspect the details).

Monkey Island, NTSC
The Secret of Monkey Island, 320×200 NTSC (source)
Winter Scene, NTSC
Winter scene, 320×200 NTSC, 16-colour palette (source)
Pinball Dreams, NTSC
Pinball Dreams, 320×200 NTSC (source)

And this is a video recording of an NTSC Commodore monitor in action from AmigaLove (you should watch it in fullscreen at 1080p to appreciate the details).

At 320×256 PAL resolutions the pixels are more densely packed together vertically, and although the scanline effect is weaker, it still subtly contributes to the overall “textured” quality of the image:

Shadow of the Beast, PAL
Shadow of the Beast, 320×256 PAL, too many colours to count

Essentially, all online flamewars about scanlines vs sharp pixels comes down to which particular systems the people participating in the debate owned. Guys whose first computer was a PC and grew up with VGA games can rightfully claim that they never saw scanlines on their monitors, and the pixels appeared as sharp, chunky little rectangles, while the Amiga and console folk were definitely not hallucinating either when they keep talking about scanlines and the beneficial smoothing effects of CRTs on low-res graphics.

Why bother?

People are paying big money for powerful graphics cards these days to enjoy their 3D games with smooth antialiased graphics — back in the 80s we got that smoothing for free in the monitor hardware! Of course, the graphics still had to be skilfully made, but if it was properly antialiased by the artist, the results just looked glorious on a typical Commodore monitor.

Below is an Amiga artwork with a CRT shader applied to it that simulates the quintessential Commodore 1084S monitor (click on it for a larger version, and click again if the cursor turns into a magnifier glass to have it displayed with 1:1 pixel mapping). I’d bet that most people could not correctly guess that this is in fact 320×256 / 64-colour pixel art (the actual image is even smaller; it fits within a 274×216 rectangle). Subjectively, it certainly looks higher resolution than that; there’s an almost 640×480 SVGA quality to it.

Scarecrow by Made

Scarecrow by Made (320×256 / 64-colour Amiga AGA pixel art)

The image was ×3 upscaled with a CRT shader. Notice on the 200% view how the shader melts away all the blockiness, increases the perceived resolution, and adds subtle texture to the image. None of that is present in the straight ×3 integer upscaled version. That’s analog versus digital for you, in a nutshell (emulated analog, but still).

The gradients and the curves are super smooth, you can’t see any jagged edges and chunky pixels like you would on an objectively higher-quality VGA monitor displaying the exact same image. But measurable improvements in technical specifications don’t necessarily always translate into better outcomes, especially when human perception and something as subjective as art is involved. For me personally, pixel art viewed on Commodore monitors from the 80s is pure magic, and that magic largely got lost during transitioning to the technologically superior PC VGA monitors in the 90s. From 1985 to about 1995, a generation of Amiga artists and enthusiast had been fixating their gazes upon the flickering analog magic that was the Commodore 1084S, and that’s something I think is well worth understanding and preserving. And it’s just heaps of fun! Using WinUAE with an emulated 1084S puts me in a good mood every time; although it’s not perfect, it gets me a little closer to the experience of sitting in front of a real Amiga. And how long until all Commodore monitors finally die and end up in the junkyard? Clearly, emulation is the only practical way going forward.

Having said all that, it’s not all roses with analog CRTs. People fondly remember the visually pleasing aspects of this display technology, but nobody misses flicker, vignetting, geometric distortions of the non-flat picture tubes, just to name the worst offenders. Naturally, we will not be emulating any of these undesirable elements.

What we will be emulating, though, is the following:

  • period-correct image dimensions and aspect ratio
  • electron beam illuminating the phosphors on the screen (versus sharp rectangular pixels)
  • scanlines (subtly different between PAL and NTSC)
  • colour reproduction of the Philips CRT
  • phosphor and shadow mask patterns
  • bloom and glow

We won’t be looking at emulating any temporal artefacts this time (e.g. motion blur, afterglow, etc.) as WinUAE has no support for such effects currently.

Here is a fun example on how the shaders hold up to a real 1084S monitor. The photos were taken from the Eye of the Beholder review published on AmigaLove. I highly recommend perusing this site as it’s one of the best online sources of good quality photos of Commodore monitors, and of course the articles themselves are very well-written and informative too. Needless to say, close-up photos of CRTs don’t nearly tell you the whole story, but I’m actually quite surprised to see the emulated results to be this close to the real thing!

Eye of the Beholder, real CRT vs shader comparison
Comparison of real C= 1084S monitor photos to the CRT emulation presented in this article and to raw bilinear sharp upscaling.
Eye of the Beholder
Eye of the Beholder with CRT emulation in WinUAE (in correct NTSC aspect ratio, as the developers intended)

That’s fine for low-res, but what about hi-res content? There’s nothing more annoying than quitting a game and having to switch the shader off because it only supports low-res and makes the Workbench screen unreadable. If you’re like me, that would take you right out of your retro-computing bliss in a jiffy! Fortunately, I have good news for you: Guest’s shader supports all standard OCS resolutions and looks glorious in hi-res too!

Workbench 1.3
Workbench 1.3 in all its overscanned glory. Old school! If this doesn’t get you excited, I don’t know what will. This shader looks so good I want to include it in my will, I swear!

A few quick words about human psychology

Just before we begin, it’s worthwhile to point it out that your perception can play tricks on you, so at the very least it’s good to be aware of a few basic psychological facts about human perception.

Firstly, we’ve been conditioned into thinking that more, bigger, louder, faster, etc. always equals better. Some of this might be evolutionary, some just a product of the times we live in, and maybe it’s even true most of the time, but not always. It’s very easy to outright dismiss an experience because it seems “inferior” according to some preconditioned criteria, but if you keep an open mind and try to live with it for a while, you might start to appreciate some of its not so obvious qualities (e.g. a “less sharp” image could make gradients and dither appear smoother, gently melt away all the jagged edges, and just subjectively it might seem more “cosy” — not unlike the certain magic of technologically inferior (strictly speaking) old analog recordings versus the 100% perfect new digital releases).

Secondly, the “order of doing things” matters. Going from sharp to less sharp, highly saturated to less colourful, louder to quieter, etc., always feels like “losing something”. But look away from your monitor for 10–20 seconds, then look again at the “less sharp” image — wow, now it seems quite normal! Switch back to the 100% sharp version — hmm, that’s weird; now that seems too clinical in comparison, and I’m not even so sure anymore that it’s “better”!

Like I said, I don’t want to suggest you what to experience exactly (I couldn’t really do that, could I?); it’s just good to be aware of these mechanisms, otherwise they can be quite perplexing and could cause you to keep chasing your tail, running around in circles, if you have no idea whatsoever what’s going on, psychologically speaking.


The shaders presented in the article are the works of Guest, who originally published them in the English Amiga Board forums (you can read the original discussion here). Since then he has made his WinUAE shader pack available on GitHub. Apart from the emulation of the Commodore A2080 monitor which I’m going use in this article, the pack also contains a number of other interesting things, such as an arcade CRT shader and a recreation of the Sony Trinitron displays.

Guest’s current bleeding-edge shader related work can be followed in the this LibRetro forum thread. Although only available for RetroArch/LibRetro at the moment, it’s surely worth checking out, and we can only hope his work will be eventually ported to WinUAE in the future once it has support added for more advanced shading techniques.

Image dimensions

As explained above, the physical dimensions of an Amiga monitor were effectively standardised, at least between about 1985–1995. This is important because if you play games featuring low-res artwork (320×200 or 320×256) designed for 14" screens fullscreen on a 24" or larger monitor, it will just look like crap — everything will look too big and overly blocky. The best way to experience those old games as their creators intended is to match the physical dimensions of your emulated computer’s image to that of a 14" monitor. Eerily enough, with ×3 integer scaling you will get almost exactly that on a typical 24" LCD (just draw a 960×720 rectangle and measure its diagonal with a ruler; it will be the 13" which equals the diagonal viewable area of the 1084S).

Now, WinUAE is the greatest Amiga emulator ever and I absolutely love it, but I’ll be the first to admit that the display settings require pilot training. Things are hunky-dory until all you care about is stretching the image to fill the whole screen (just use the Fullscreen (TV) or Fullscreen (Max) scaling method in the Filter section and set Aspect Ratio Correction to Automatic), but once you want to set up exact scaling ratios and image dimensions, the UI is really not on your side anymore, to put it politely. Long story short, after countless hours of tinkering, I stumbled upon the One True Way™ of getting predictable results in the exact way I wanted, so that’s what I’ll describe next.

This is what your Display settings should look like. These are the settings for PAL; of course, you could use NTSC as well, and you might want to use windowed mode or a different vsync method. But the rest must be set exactly as shown, and all the Brightness, Contrast, Gamma, etc. settings must be at zero (they’re not related to what we’re doing now, of course, but they could royally screw up things when we’ll get to the shader and colour profile setup later). Ticking the two centering checkboxes surely seems enticing, but I recommend against it as it will lead to all sorts of problems (we can always adjust the image position manually in the Filter settings if we have to).

WinUAE Display settings
WinUAE Display settings

Now the Filter settings; again, you must set up everything exactly as shown. With these settings we’ll have full manual control over the scaling with the Horiz. size and Vert. size sliders. Unfortunately, the numerical input boxes are read-only, so we must use the slider widgets to set the values which is rather inexact and cumbersome. The only way for making fine adjustments is with the cursor keys while the slider is in focus.

With our settings so far we’re getting ×2 integer scaling with both sliders at 0 — that’s a nice clean starting point. After some trial and error, I managed to reverse-engineer the magic formula for applying further scaling on top of that:

(ScaleRatio – 2) × 1000

So if we want ×3 scaling, we’ll need to set both scaling factors to (3 – 2) × 1000 = 1000.

WinUAE Filter settings (bilinear-sharp scaling)
WinUAE Filter settings (×3 bilinear-sharp scaling)

Like I said, ×3 scaling will give us the authentic 1084s image size on a typical 24" 1920×1080 LCD monitor. The rest of the article assumes this display type, so keep that in mind. This handy calculator will help you if you want to adopt my settings to other display size and resolution combinations.

Sometimes we can deviate from ×3 scaling with good results. For example, Pinball Dreams can be enjoyable at ×3.5 if you lean back a bit, and I like to play Rick Dangerous at ×3.5 or even ×4 because the game doesn’t use the whole screen. Some games benefit from a slightly larger image, some don’t; you’ll need to experiment and use your judgement. In any case, keep in mind that ×3 scaling will give you the “canonical” image size that people were looking at sitting in front of their monitors back in the day, so that should always be your starting point.

Einstein by Ra
Properly anti-aliased graphics look fabulous at ×3.5 scaling too — no hints of VGA-style chunkiness anywhere. Who needs more than 32 colours?! (Artwork by Ra/Sanity from the Amiga 500 demo Arte)

The following table lists some useful scaling values along with the resulting image dimensions in pixels, and their equivalent CRT sizes when viewed on a typical 24" / 1080p LCD:

PAL image scaling ratios
Equivalent CRT size
(on 24"/1080p LCD)
×3.01000100092076814" (13.0" viewable)
×3.212001200102481915" (13.8" viewable)
×3.515001500112089617" (15.5" viewable)
×4.0200020001280102419" (17.3" viewable)

I recommend saving these settings as presets so you can conveniently switch between them (loading a filter preset won’t restart the emulated machine). The quick’n’easy way is to download my preset pack, load the full WinUAE configs (I’ve included one for every scaler setting) and just save the filter settings for each. Don’t worry about the NTSC presets just yet, we’ll get to them in the next section.

Filter resize presets

As shown on the Filter screenshot above, if you only want period-correct scaling but don’t care about the CRT shader (in which case you’re missing out a lot, of course, but whatever 😎), you’ll need to use the Point-Prescale shader in slot 0 with both horizontal and vertical oversample factors set to 4x.

Point prescale settings

This will give you sharp-bilinear like rescaling in low-res modes, but in hi-res (640-pixel-wide modes) the results will leave a lot to be desired. To properly fix that, you’ll really need to use the CRT shader.

Aspect ratio

This topic has been discussed to the death a thousand times, but far too many people still get it routinely wrong. Why’s that so, it’s a bit of a mystery as the whole concept is not that difficult to grasp. Here’s my stab at explaining it unambiguously with as few words as possible (but not less!)


  • Before about 2005, all commonly used consumer TVs and monitors were 4:3 display aspect ratio.

  • On PAL Amigas, non-laced & non-overscanned low-res is 320×256 and the pixels are square (1:1 pixel aspect ratio2). To display the 5:4 aspect ratio image (320:256 = 5:4) on a 4:3 display aspect ratio screen while keeping the pixels square, the image needs to be slightly pillarboxed (it fills the screen vertically, but there are two very narrow black borders on the sides, as shown on the photo in this article).3

  • On NTSC Amigas, standard low-res is 320×200 (because NTSC has less vertical resolution). The image fills the screen completely and the pixels are 20% taller than wide (1:1.2 pixel aspect ratio4). This is commonly referred to as “NTSC-stretch” in the popular vernacular.5

The same rationale applies to every other standard Amiga screen mode and their overscanned variants. The most important thing to remember is that the vertical stretch factor of NTSC screen modes is always 1.2 in relation to their PAL counterparts, without exception.

It’s nothing too controversial so far, is it? PAL users had square pixels, NTSC users slightly tall ones, and the image always filled the screen on both standards (not 100% on PAL as explained above, but close enough).

American made games on PAL computers

Now, the complication comes from the fact that most NTSC games designed by Americans, originally intended for the US market, were also made available in PAL countries. As early Amigas with the OCS chipset were not PAL/NTSC switchable in software (like later models that had the “fat” ECS Agnus, or the even later AGA machines that had its successor, Alice), these PAL conversions had to use PAL screen modes, which meant the original NTSC graphics occupied the upper 320×200 area of a 320×256 PAL screen, leaving the bottom 56 lines blank (assuming low-res). As a result, the art appeared squashed vertically compared to the NTSC originals (some people call this the “PAL-squash”).

Now what you must understand is that these games were made in America, by Americans, on NTSC monitors that stretched the 320×200 image to fill the whole 4:3 screen. Therefore (whether like it or not) everybody on PAL systems experienced these games incorrectly with the wrong aspect ratio back in the day (“PAL-squashed”), not as the original artists intended! (Including me, because I grew up in Europe — I’m not an American preaching to everybody that “Europeans got it all wrong” or something… I’m just simply stating historical facts.)

Let this sink in a bit.

You must understand that the only reason for this rather precarious situation is the technical differences between PAL and NTSC, and the fact that drawing the art twice for both systems would have been prohibitively expensive, so no wonder no company had ever done that.

Now, some people from PAL countries might concur that they only ever experienced these games with squashed art (and potentially running 17% slower because of the 60 vs 50 Hz difference); that’s how they remember them, and that’s what they want to emulate for nostalgic reasons. It’s hard to argue with that logic, indeed — if those are your memories, then that’s the end of it. But keep in mind the “PAL-squash” only happened because of practical considerations (mostly budgetary limitations); it wasn’t a deliberate artistic or creative intention, but an unfortunate necessity. Then real question is this: do you want to emulate these games as you remember them, or how their creators intended them to be experienced? And wouldn’t it be nice, after all these years, to finally enjoy them in their most authentic, undistorted form?

It’s not just about the video

Many of these PAL conversions were less than perfect and did not account for the ~17% slowdown that happens when a game synced to the 60 Hz NTSC vertical refresh rate is running in 50 Hz PAL mode. Quite often the music playback was synced to the screen refresh rate as well, which makes the slowdown fairly easy to spot (if the game also has a DOS port, one of the surest ways to ascertain the correct music playback speed is to listen to the DOS version).

Check out this video for a demonstration of the PAL vs NTSC differences on the classic game Secret of Monkey Island. (By the way, it’s worth watching the whole thing from the beginning, it’s very informative and enlightening — but at the very least just watch this little snippet.)

To cite a few examples of my own, the music plays noticeably slower in the following American made games in PAL mode, while in NTSC mode the music speed perfectly matches that of the DOS versions.

  • Eye of the Beholder I-II
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
  • Pool of Radiance
  • King’s Quest 2
  • Space Quest 3 (probably all Sierra games are affected)

In some better coded games that handle both PAL and NTSC correctly, there is no difference in gameplay or music playback speed:

  • Curse of the Azure Bonds
  • Loom
  • Phantasie 1
  • Pirates!
  • Secret of Monkey Island
  • Secret of the Silver Blades
  • Windwalker

The moral of the story is that generally you can’t go wrong by using NTSC mode for all American titles (which includes a significant part of the whole Amiga catalogue). Without doubt, that’s the preferable option; the graphics will appear undistorted, exactly as the creators intended, and the game will run at the correct speed, including music playback. (Theoretically, the only time you can run into problems is when you use a PAL crack of an NTSC game that somehow breaks NTSC compatibility.)

Running games in NTSC

Sadly enough, as Amiga software preservation efforts seem to be almost exclusively concentrated on PAL releases for whatever reasons, disk images of NTSC originals are extremely hard to come by. But simply forcing NTSC mode with the PAL versions widely available online should do the trick in most cases.

These are the two best ways to do that when using emulation:

  • For WHDLoad conversions, forcing a game to run in NTSC mode is as simple as adding the NTSC tooltype to its launch icon. This will work fine on a typical emulated PAL Amiga 1200 setup; the game will open an NTSC screen and WinUAE will automatically apply the correct vertical aspect scaling ratio on top of our manually set ×3.0-4.0 PAL scaling. That’s good news because we don’t need to keep switching between the PAL and NTSC scaling presets when playing different games. This method requires the NTSC monitor driver to be installed — just drag the NTSC icon from the Monitors directory on the Storage Workbench installer disk to Devs/Monitors on your system drive, reboot, and Bob’s your uncle!

  • If you plan on playing games on an OCS Amiga 500 with Kickstart 1.2/1.3 (a most prestigious choice 🧐), you’ll need to emulate an actual NTSC chipset. It’s very simple: just tick NTSC in the Chipset configuration section. Now, if you turn on automatic aspect ratio management in WinUAE (in the Filter section select Fullscreen (TV) or Fullscreen (Max) scaling and set Aspect Ratio Correction to Automatic), WinUAE will apply the correct aspect ratio correction right from the boot screen. But like I explained previously, this only works if you’re happy with the image being automatically stretched to fill the whole screen. If we want to keep using our exact scaling methods, the automatic aspect ratio correction won’t work, so we’ll need to incorporate the NTSC-stretch ourselves into our scaling factors as shown below:

NTSC image scaling ratios
Equivalent CRT size
(on 24"/1080p LCD)
×3.01000160092072014" (13.0" viewable)
×3.212001840102476815" (13.8" viewable)
×3.515002200112084017" (15.5" viewable)
×4.020002800128096019" (17.3" viewable)

I recommend creating presets for the NTSC settings as well so you can easily switch between them at will:

Filter resize presets

If you have vsync enabled, your screen refresh rate must be 50 Hz for PAL and 60 Hz for NTSC, respectively, otherwise you’ll be experiencing all sorts of weird speed issues (e.g. music playing much slower or faster than it should). With vsync off this it not a problem, so that’s a good quick way to examine how a WHDLoad game behaves in PAL vs NTSC without having to change the screen refresh rate and restart the emulator.

But life ain’t simple

No, we can’t put this whole PAL vs NTSC fiasco behind us just yet… The situation with European made games is a bit more complicated. The complete algorithm for determining whether a particular title should be played in PAL or NTSC is as follows:

  • For games originally developed by American studios — always use NTSC

    It does not matter if the Amiga port or the PAL version was made by a European developer; in virtually all cases they just reused the original NTSC graphics, and quite often didn’t even attempt to address the 17% slowdown issue.

    Some well-known American studios: Activision, Accolade, Electronic Arts, Westwood, Origin, Interplay, FTL, MicroProse / MPS Labs, SSI, Lucasfilm Games / LucasArts, Sierra, Cinemaware, New World Computing, Sir-Tech, Infocom, Access Software, Electric Dreams, Spectrum Holobyte, Epyx, D.S.I., U.S. Gold, Broderbund, Capcom, SEGA

  • For games originally developed by European studios (mostly UK):

    • If the game uses 320×256 or some other PAL screen mode and the graphics fills the whole screen — always use PAL

    • If the graphics only takes up a 320×200 or smaller area of the screen, that does not automatically mean that it needs the NTSC-stretch applied to look correct; it might very well have been drawn with square pixels in mind still. Perihelion is a good example of this: the graphics is 320×200, but it absolutely needs square pixels (probably they just wanted to play it safe for an eventual future US release). Exact same deal with Populous 1 & 2, Powermonger, and Midwinter — can’t really fault them; they just wanted to be able to sell their games in the US as well, and stretched graphics is infinitely better than no NTSC release at all.

      Another interesting case is Elvira 1: the graphics actually look good in either PAL or NTSC. Most likely they anticipated the game to be released both in Europe and the US, plus they released the DOS and Amiga versions simultaneously, so apparently they tried to draw the art in a way that looks good in both aspect ratios (with quite good results, I must add). So in case of the Elvira games, I think it’s really a toss-up. Anyway, you see the pattern here: you’ll need to research the game a bit and, in some cases you’ll just need to use your aesthetic judgement.

    A few important European studios: Bitmap Brothers, Psygnosis, Bullfrog, Horror Soft / Adventure Soft, Magnetic Scrolls, Delphine, Coktel Vision, Revolution, Ubisoft, Infogrames, DMA Design, Core Design, Level 9, Team 17, Sensible Software, Firebird, Digital Illusions, Silmarils, Thalion, Thalamus, Ocean

Although looking at circles and squares to determine the intended aspect ratio helps in many cases, it’s not a 100% fool-proof method. It certainly works for most racing games and flight simulators where the circular gauges should usually appear as perfect circles when the correct aspect ratio is being used, but in general it’s better to look at some common objects and make sure they appear correctly, neither too tall nor too squashed (human faces and full human figures are the best candidates for this).

CRT shader

Congratulations, if you’ve made it so far, the display of your emulated Amiga should resemble that of a PC VGA monitor in low-res mode (sharp blocky pixels and all). But unlike VGA, which is double-scanned at 31 kHz horizontal sync frequency, all stock Amigas output 15 kHz single-scanned video signals, and not even the best Commodore monitors could enter the ring against any average 14" VGA display from the 90s when it comes to sharpness (unsurprisingly, since the IBM PC was originally intended as a business machine, therefore text legibility was of primary concern).

In order to simulate the roundish “pixels” of the 1084S that slightly blend into each other (the rather nice “natural anti-aliasing” effect that makes low-res artwork so much more pleasant to look at, and lends the image this wonderful “fuzzy analog quality”) and the subtle scanlines (at least on PAL; on NTSC they’re much more prominent), we’ll need Guest’s rather excellent CRT-A2080-HiRes-SmartRes-Interlace CRT shader. Clearly, this shader is the star of the show, and this makes the biggest difference after matching the physical dimensions of the 1084S monitor. One its most remarkable features is that it provides seamless support for all standard Amiga screen modes in a single shader (320×256 Low Res, 640×256 High Res, 320×512 Low Res Laced, 640×512 High Res Laced, and naturally all their overscanned and NTSC variants). The interlace flicker is not emulated, but probably that’s for the best. This thing handles everything you throw at it, including low-res/hi-res split-screen games (e.g Lemmings, Shadow of the Beast, Apidya, Agony, all Magnetic Scrolls adventures, etc.)

Start scene of Scapeghost by Magnetic Scrolls. Upper half of the screen is 320×256 low-res, while the bottom half displaying the text is 640×256 hi-res. As you can see, CRT-A2080-HiRes-SmartRes-Interlace handles situations like this splendidly! I love you, CRT-A2080-HiRes-SmartRes-Interlace! ❤️

I have tweaked the shader settings a little bit, you can download my customised versions from here. They’re called CRT-A2080-PAL-* and CRT-A2080-NTSC-* and have several variants — I had to create copies because WinUAE doesn’t support shader presets yet, plus I made the names a little shorter. The NTSC variants push scanline strength to the max without much noticeable moire/aliasing for the scaling factor indicated in the name, so for example for ×3.5 scaling you can safely use CRT-A2080-NTSC-x3.5, or the x3.2 or x3.0 variants for less strong scanlines. I created these because NTSC users seem to have a fondness for scanlines and want them to be displayed prominently. But you can just stick with the PAL preset if you prefer to keep them subtle (that’s what I do most of the time). The special PAL-sharp preset is designed for text adventures to maximise text readability.

(By the way, in case you’re wondering, “the Commodore A2080 was essentially a high persistence phosphor model of the 1084 to reduce flicker in NTSC modes”, according to the Big Book of Amiga Hardware.)

Okay, so this is how to set this up:

In the Miscellaneous section, select Direct3D 11 for the Graphics API (and leave it at hardware accelerated, of course). Put the tweaked version of these shaders into plugins\filtershaders\direct3d in your WinUAE installation directory and restart WinUAE. Then in the Filter section select CRT-A2080-PAL in slot 0, and set 2x horizontal and 4x vertical oversampling. If your have a slower GPU and you’re getting dropouts, you might want to reduce this a little, but don’t go below 3x vertical oversampling (this is essential to make the scanlines nice even and alias-free; 1x horizontal and 3x vertical is the recommended minimum). Oversampling takes a big hit on performance, e.g. with 2x horizontal and 4x vertical oversampling your GPU would need to render 2×4=8 times as many frames per second!

WinUAE filter presets

Detail view of the NTSC x3.0 variant in action on a scene from Defender of the Crown:

Defender of the Crown shader comparison
Left: sharp-bilinear scaling (NTSC aspect ratio corrected)
Right: CRT-A2080-NTSC-x3.0 shader

CRT colour profile

The next thing that will make a huge difference in replicating an authentic CRT experience is emulating the colour profile of the C= 1084S monitor. Most modern displays are calibrated for sRGB out-of-the-box that uses D65 (6500K) whitepoint. This is noticeably cooler (bluer) looking than the more warmish/yellowish look of a typical CRT from the 80s, which was closer to 5000K (CRT manufacturers more or less just did whatever they felt like back then; the sRGB standard came into existence in 1996 precisely to remedy this Wild West type of situation).

Guest’s WinUAE shader pack contains a CRT colour profile filter in ReShade format (ReshadeShaders/WinUaeColor.fx), and one of the included profiles is exactly what the doctor ordered (information about the different profiles can be found here):

[Profile 4] Manually calibrated and compared to real Philips based CRT monitors, running side by side with the shader on a 10-bit DCI-P3 gamut panel. This calibrated CRT profile covers amongst others Philips CM8533, Philips VS-0080, and Commodore 1084.

Note the whitepoint is significantly different from D65. It’s closer to 6100K, but clearly not on the blackbody curve.

Perfect! You’ll need to install ReShade into your WinUAE folder to use this, just follow Guest’s instructions from the README. Now one thing that he doesn’t mention is that the shaders depend on the common ReShade.fxh and ReShadeUI.fxh files that are not included, so just get them from here (all these files are included in my preset pack, by the way).

Once you’ve set up everything correctly, just enable WinUaeColor.fx and set it up like shown below. Color Profile 4 is the Philips, most people should leave Color Space at 0 (sRGB), but if you’re the lucky owner of a wide-gamut display then you definitely should set it to match your display’s colour profile (the emulation would be more accurate that way, according to the instructions).

Colour Temperature should stay at zero, and I know it’s very tempting, but don’t ever touch Color Saturation because it’s completely broken. The default saturation is just fine, but if you really want to have a saturation control, I recommend prod80’s Color Space Curves ReShade filter in L*a*b mode, placed before the WinUaeColor shader.

The Color Contrast adjustment, on the other hand, works quite well; you can either leave it at zero, or bump it up to about 0.5 like I have recently. Some games look quite nice with the contrast cranked up almost to the max, some look completely fine at near zero — just like on real hardware.

WinUaeColor shader settings

As expected, the right half of the below example image with the Philips colour profile applied looks much more warm and cosy. Now we’re cooking on gas! — this is how I remember my Philips and Commodore monitors, the raw sRGB version looks too harsh and clinical in comparison.

Centurion colour profile comparison
Left: scene from Centurion: Defender of Rome by Jim Sachs, sRGB colours
Right: same image with Philips colour profile applied

The difference is even more striking on greys, like on this Directory Opus screenshot:

Directory Opus colour profile comparison
Left: Directory Opus, sRGB colours
Right: same image with Philips colour profile applied

Phosphor and shadow mask

Now, this step is subtle but important: the emulation of the phosphor pattern and the shadow mask that gives the image a subtle, almost canvas-like texture. Different monitors use different types of shadow masks; the 1084S and most early computer monitors have the slot-mask or in-line type which was also commonly used in TV CRTs in the 80s.

Shadow mask types
Left: slotted-triplet shadow mask (also known as slot mask, or in-line shadow mask)
Right: triad-style dot mask typically used in PC monitors

The staggered slot mask pattern combined with the relatively low dot pitch (0.42 mm) results in quite visible zig-zag patterns across the scanlines. The effect is especially noticeable in NTSC as you can see in many of AmigaLove’s YouTube videos.

Close-up view of the effects of the slot mask - Workbench 1.3
Close-up view of the effects of the slot mask — Workbench 1.3 (source)
Close-up view of the effects of the slot mask - Pools of Darkness
Close-up view of the effects of the slot mask — Pools of Darkness (source)

The shadow mask is just as visible in PAL screen modes, and because the scanlines are much closer, the zig-zag pattern almost turns into a fine checkerboard-like texture.

Shadow of the Beast game over screen
Shadow of the Beast game over screen (PAL)

This article gives a good succinct explanation on how these pixel-masks are implemented. Like I said in the beginning, my settings are really tailored for 1080p. At 4k or higher resolutions you’ll almost certainly need to make significant adjustments to them.

Again, this is not something that jumps at you as it’s rather subtle, but it’s missing if it’s not there. The lack of it is especially noticeable on large solidly coloured areas; on a real CRT these were never really solid, there was always something “going on” even in these boring surfaces; a faint, almost subliminal canvas-like texture. Here are the settings I’m using in the WinUaeMaskGlow ReShade filter (whether you put it before or after the colour filter is of not much practical importance):

WinUaeMaskGlow shader settings

And this is a before/after comparison on a blow-up NTSC image. Doesn’t seem like a big deal; it’s one of those strange things that doesn’t seem to add much when you turn it on, only when you remove it once you’ve become accustomed to it. It might even seem a bit pointless first, but trust me, just set it up, live with it for a while, and then turn it off — chances are you’ll really miss it!

Phosphor and shadow mask emulation comparison
Left: no phosphor and shadow mask emulation
Right: phosphor and shadow mask emulation applied

Bloom and glow

Okay, this is really the icing on the cake, a subtle but important final touch to make the emulation even more authentic. CRT displays always exhibit a certain degree of halation, which is quite an interesting effect. As the electron beams illuminate the phosphors and they emit light in turn, the light rays entering the front glass close to normal angles pass mostly undeterred, but below a certain angle of incidence the light is reflected back to the picture tube’s surface where it undergoes further reflections. The end result is a characteristic concentric glow (“halo”) around brightly lit areas, which also results in a localised loss of contrast. The effect is most noticeable when bright text is displayed on a black background, as shown on the example below.

The “bloom” effect is maybe not named entirely correctly, but it’s basically the effect of brighter pixels appearing a little larger and bleeding into their neighbours a bit more. Sort of a pixel-level, small scale glow effect that incidentally is also useful to make up for the brightness loss caused by the shadow mask.

Luckily for us, the mask and glow shader emulates both phenomena quite convincingly. The trick is not to overdo it (you shouldn’t really notice the effect unless you’re looking for it), so I’m keeping both at rather low strength settings. What I said about the phosphor and shadow mask emulation holds true for these as well: turning them on might not seem overly impressive first (if you’re impressed, you’ve added waaaaaay too much glow!), but when you turn them off later, you’ll really miss the effect.

Eye of the Beholder, bloom and glow comparison
Left: Eye of the Beholder intro, no bloom & glow emulation
Right: Same image with subtle bloom & glow emulation

In closing

Phew, that was one long article, indeed! Hopefully you’ve enjoyed my ramblings and have actually learned something useful. I wish you a nice emulated Amiga experience, and stay tuned for the next episode where we’ll be looking at DOS/early-Windows era EGA and VGA graphics!

  1. Yes, some people couldn’t afford a monitor and hooked up their machine to a TV, but those were either small 13–14" TV sets, or if they used the big family TV, that had to be viewed from a distance, so the effective image dimensions ended up being about the same (remember, TVs in the 80s were much smaller than today). The Sony PVM and BVM line of monitors seem to be very much in vogue lately in retro-gaming circles, especially in the US because of the almost total lack of small NTSC TVs with SCART inputs over there. I’m sure they’re nice, but remember, the P and B stand for “Professional” and “Broadcast”, respectively. A 20" BVM set you back by about 16,000 USD in the 90s, and the smaller models were not exactly cheap either, often costing well over a grand. Now how many home users exactly could have afforded these babies back in the day? Zero? I guarantee you that no Amiga enthusiast had owned a Sony PVM/BVM ever before the year 2000. It’s just that companies started throwing them away or selling them for $5 apiece and the retro crowd quickly snatched them up, creating a small hype in the process — now they command absolutely ridiculous prices on eBay again. In any case, as using one of these is not the authentic experience (they’re a bit too sharp, have aperture masks instead of slots masks, and the scanlines are a bit too prominent because of the increased vertical resolution of 800–1000 lines), we’re not concerned with them here. Another fun fact: as Commodore monitors had excellent image quality and colour reproduction for the time (for SD broadcast standards, that is), often they found their way into professional studios and were sitting next to the Sonys. You could buy several of them for the price of a single Sony; there’s not much arguing with it that they had pretty much the best quality/affordability ratio throughout the 80s. ↩︎

  2. Yes, I’m aware that the pixels are not completely square in PAL when the Amiga is hooked up to a TV, and the “real PAL pixel aspect ratio” is not quite 1:1, but a tiny bit off. The thing is, people adjusted their screens with the stretch controls on their monitors to taste anyway (hopefully to the correct 1:1 ratio!), so this is largely irrelevant. Plus it’s much better to emulate square pixels for practical reasons. ↩︎

  3. It’s easy to derive this from the ratios: 4:3 display aspect ratio can be rewritten as 16:12, and the storage aspect ratio of 320:256 = 5:4 as 15:12. Because the vertical ratios are identical, the image fills the screen vertically. However, the display is 16 units wide while the image width is only 15 units, so there will be black bars on the two sides. ↩︎

  4. Same story as for PAL: the “theoretically correct” vertical stretch ratio is not quite 1.2, but close enough that it does not matter. ↩︎

  5. Divide the 320×200 NTSC pixel-grid size by ten to get the 32:20 storage aspect ratio. Multiply the 4:3 display aspect ratio by 8 to arrive at the same width factor; that will give us a 32:24 display aspect ratio. The horizontal factors match, so the image fills the screen horizontally, but not vertically (because 24 > 20); for that we need to stretch the pixels vertically by a factor of 24/20 = 1.2. This is the same vertical stretch factor that must be applied to 320x200 VGA games so they display correctly on square pixel aspect ratio LCD monitors. (Of course, the deeper and true explanation lies in the workings of the NTSC broadcast standard and would require some knowledge of analog electronics; however, for our purposes here this purely aspect ratio based derivation is sufficient.) ↩︎


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